The city of London was founded quite early in our era, and the original settlement was founded by the Romans. The exact meaning of the name is disputed, the original name has changed: Londinium, Ludenwick and Ludenburg. Initially, London City was formed, later Westminster City was a counterweight to it. The city was destroyed many times, but it was rebuilt again and again. The city, of course, has now expanded enormously, and by the term City we now mean that original one square mile. There are dragon figurines on the streets that mark the City's border. So, if you look at the dragon's face, you are outside, if you look at the dragon from behind, you are already inside.
Much has been written about the history of London. 1994 the published book Bibliography of Printed Works on London History lists 21,778 prints. Just like you can't see all the exhibits in the British Museum, you can't read everything about the history of this city either. I'll just list some of the highlights below.
The Welsh dragon does not appear on the Union Flag. This is because when the first Union Flag was created in 1606, the Principality of Wales by that time was already united with England and was no longer a separate principality. The Union Flag was originally a Royal flag.
Most tourists think that when a flag is on the pole of Buckingham Palace, the Queen/King is in the palace. Actually, it's not like that, it's more complicated.
Until 1997, it was tradition that when the King/Queen was in the palace, his/her personal flag would be flown there. When the ruler was not present, the flagstaff was empty. When the flag flew at the palace, it was always at the top of the pole, it was never lowered in mourning.
Things changed when Princess Diana died in a car accident. The Queen was not in London at the time and the flagstaff was empty. The people began to demand that the palace must also have a mourning flag. On the order of the Queen, the tradition was changed and the national flag was raised in mourning on the day of the funeral. So it remained, that from that day the flag is always on a pole, one flag when the King/Queen is present, another when she/he is away.
It is also interesting that the flags are of different sizes - for big and important events, the flag is bigger.
Of the seven ancient gates of the City of London, only one has survived - Temple Bar (Places of Interest, No. 77). It has also changed places twice.
Here are the kings/queens who have ruled this land
On May 9, 2022, Elizabeth II became the third longest-reigning monarch at 70 years and 92 days. With her reign of 70 years, 7 months and 2 days, she also surpassed Thailand's King Bhumibol Adulyadej, Rama IX (70 years and 126 days). Only King Louis XIV of France has reigned longer (72 years and 110 days).
Elizabeth II died on 8 September 2022. Next king is Charles III.
An artist's view of the city of Londinium. River Thames (from Sanskrit 'tamas' meaning 'dark', there are other opinions, who knows...) and the only bridge over this river. Outside the walls in the background is the River Fleet, home to the world's first water mills.