In total, there are 32 boroughs in addition to the City. Here are some of the more important ones for your orientation. See these all: here.
The so-called Greater London is 1610 km2 in size, but the main part of interest to tourists is about 65 km2. Most places of interest are close to tube stations and London is relatively flat to comfortably walk to the sights. Of course, you can buy the book London AZ (z is pronounced "zed" in the British way), but a smartphone is also enough. For example, I would recommend the "Map of London Offline" app. The advantage of this is that the map is in "old-time" style, with very robust lines and contrast. Better to read in sunlight than newer map apps. You could also load a compass app on your smartphone so that you don't get confused. There are many places where five or six streets meet at one point and the problem arises as which one is the right one.
Postcodes such as SW1 or EC3 are used in London. However, they are mainly useful when sending a letter or when you are looking for a place based on an address. There are many streets with the same name in London. For example, there are two Abbey Roads, more than 10 km apart. As many as three streets are named after Nelson Mandela. To distinguish these, it is also worth considering the postal code.
On the following map you can see places in London named after a river that no longer exists.
The Underground is a nice thing. You can quickly get to where you want to go. But there is also one important drawback. When riding the Underground, you get the feeling of "teleportation". You are in the desired place, but you do not perceive how this place is located in relation to other places you have seen. That's why I added a map here so that you can better understand what is where. And that it is smarter to walk to some places instead of using the Underground.
These are the most well-known "tourist traps" here ;-) , which you MUST see.
Palace of Westminster. Parliament building. You can enter here only at certain times and by prior reservation. Just behind it is Westminster Abbey.
Buckingham Palace. Royal Castle. Currently the seat of Charles III. The castle does not belong to the King, he is only a "tenant" there. You can enter there to explore only in July and August, when the king is on holidays. You should book an excursion there in advance.
Whitehall. The government and state administrative offices are located here. In fact, there is nothing else to see there, except the facades of the houses and the strictly guarded gates.
The Shard. London's tallest building. You can get to the top and the view is even better than the London Eye.
Tower Bridge. A drawbridge that used to be powered by steam. One of two vintage bridges (the other being the Prince Albert Bridge) that stands in its original form on the site where it was built. Other bridges have been demolished and rebuilt many times. Or they are quite new.
Tower. An old fort that became notorious as a prison.
St. Paul's Cathedral. Built according to the project of Old Master Wren after the great fire of 1666.
British Museum. Watch what you watch, you can't watch everything anyway.
The London Eye. Ferris wheel, which is probably praised too much, but you know it yourself.
Trafalgar Square. Admiral Nelson Monument. National Gallery. A place where Londoners gather on festive occasions (such as New Year's Eve).
Piccadilly Circus. It's nothing special, but you can't ignore it. If you're interested, see what's underneath.
Kensington Palace. One part of the castle can also be seen, the other part has residents inside. A treat for Princess Diana fans.
Three museums right next to each other: Science Museum, Natural History Museum and Victoria & Albert Museum.
The Greenwich observatory remains off the map. It is so far that it is not worth walking there. You have to get on the DLR train. A suitable starting point would be either Bank Station or Tower Gateway. Train to Lewisham. You can get off at Cutty Sark for Maritime Greenwich station, but it's nice to get off at Island Gardens station and go under the Thames in a foot tunnel. Much more interesting. But it is faster (but also more boring) to get there by train from London Bridge station.
These are perhaps more important. Richmond Park is off the map, it's far to the South-west.
London's parks are good places if you want to take a break from the hustle and bustle of the shopping street. The parks have comfortable paths in all directions, but no one forbids you to walk or lie down on the grass. In the beautiful summer weather, the park lawn is full of different groups in the evenings, who feel free and do not disturb each other. If you want to play ball, ride a bicycle or do something else you like in the park, at the entrance to each park it is written what you can and can't do in that park. Also the times when the park is open.
As a rule, London parks are fenced off and locked at night. If it is a very large park that the park ranger cannot see in its entirety, there are special one-way gates so that no one who is distracted should stay overnight in the park. For example, if you get "trapped" in Kensington Gardens (111 hectares!), go to the North-west corner and get out.
Green Park. A park without a single flower.
St Jame's Park
The Regent's Park
Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park. The Olympic Games took place here, but even now the region is beautiful and constantly developing.
Greenwich. The famous observatory is here, but otherwise also a nice place.
Battersea Park. Next to it is a former power station which should be very familiar to Pink Floyd fans...
Holland Park. If you visit it, don't miss the part called Kyoto Garden.
To the North of the map is Hampstead Heath, a very nice forest park with water bodies.
I don't know how many of our people can afford to buy something from these stores, but you can still look. Consider that these are really fine places, some of these have their own dress code. For example, you won't be allowed into Harrods in fraying shorts or beach flip-flops.
In fact, if you are interested in, for example, fashion goods, the goods of British brands can be cheaper.
Dover Street Market. A slightly surreal atmosphere. Founded by Comme des Garçons designer Rei Kawakubo, it features amazing installations. Brands like The Row, Gucci and Simone Rocha.
Fenwick. The department store is as luxurious as the entire street on which it is located. The latest fashion items from the likes of Bella Freud and Michael Kors. Elie Saab and Caudalie beauty products.
Fortnum & Mason. English traditions, both in the clothing of the staff and in the elegant tea room, are all full of old-time elegance. The food section is also representative, the best English tea and Scotch eggs, invented by Mr Fortnum as early as 1738.
Harrods. Maybe the best known. Contains 300 stores that sell EVERYTHING. You can even buy a sailing yacht there, although for obvious reasons it is not exactly on the counter. ;-) And no automatic doors - a doorman dressed in green will open the door for you.
Harvey Nichols. From everyday wear to the latest fashion, creations by new and old authors. Fifth floor cafe and terrace with a nice view to enjoy a cocktail.
Heal' s. 3902 square meters of space, household goods, lighting, furniture. A representative store from 1854. It is understandable that you will not buy furniture for your home there, but it is worth a look. Be sure to check out the illuminated spiral staircase, a favourite spot for instagrammers.
Liberty. A noteworthy building, the wood of two old warships has also been used for its construction. Cosmetics, jewellery and more. The smells on the first floor make your head spin. :-)
Selfridges. Here you can fill your yellow bag with all kinds of goods. Both the latest fashion and cheaper goods. Be sure to also go to the food department.
The Shop at Bluebird. A three-story building with a glass roof. Palm trees and eclectic decor. Perfume Gallery, British Designer Clothing, Home Goods.
If you buy clothes or shoes, you may not be familiar with English measurements, you probably are (Are shoes no. 8 right for you? :-) ). Then it makes sense to use the following converter.
* The world's oldest still operating hat shop. You can walk in and ask what Admiral Nelson bought here. Or ask for something similar to the one Chaplin or Churchill bought here. ** Claimed to have the oldest graphic logo.
If seeing the places with a guide is more suitable for you, you could check out these two sites: